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Validated risk assessment tool LoRis 2.0 in accordance to the Swiss guideline ASTRA 89005
It is in all our interest to reduce the risk and provide a high level of safety to tunnel users. Swiss guidelines ASTRA 19004 and 89005 define a quantitative assessment methodology that describes the role of risk analysis in decision making and the evaluation of measures to achieve a higher safety in tunnels of the national roadway system. This methodology has been implemented in LoRis, an internally developed tool that facilitates the investigation of risk and provides information about cost-effective measures for existing as well as new tunnels. LoRis is built on a Bayesian network, a probabilistic model, that computes the individual risk and relevant FN curves for fatalities and injuries. The underlying scientific approach takes quantitative information regarding events, and processes consequences using mathematical functions and CFD-simulations. The methodology is applicable to tunnels with a length greater than 300 m, open to the transit of normal, heavy goods and dangerous goods vehicles. The tool is in continuous development, following the statistical trend of base rates, ready to employ the newest principles and perspectives of the roadway research community.
Soil Compaction Testing - SCT
Liquefaction is one of the biggest nightmares for engineers, when designing in seismic-prone areas. The determination of the liquefaction risk in such areas is indispensable, often presenting a “Go or No-go” criterion already at the feasibility stage of a project. Two of the principal parameters used for the corresponding geotechnical characterization of soils are: void ratio, and compactness. Among others, these factors determine the expected soil quality and performance as a foundation. Direct measurement of the natural void ratio is particularly challenging, since it requires undisturbed samples. Because of this, indirect methods are commonly used, such as the standard penetration test or the cone penetration test, which have been developed and are widely applied during initial site investigation phases. However, such indirect methods have their limitations and often fail, especially with heterogeneous soils. Results are interpreted by indirect correlations, which are often affected by uncertainty. Extraction of undisturbed samples, or the use of geophysical methods are typically not considered as a first choice due to overall project scheduling and costs. This situation has led Lombardi engineers, together with industry and university partners, to develop a quick, simple to use and more reliable and flexible approach, that allows a direct quantitative measurement of the void ratio, and thus of the relative density. This new approach uses microwave technology with a crosshole measurement arrangement, and instantly enables the direct determination of a soil-water percentage in saturated soils. The testing procedure is simple and time effective, allowing measurements to be made with little effort and costs. The device functionality and robustness has been proven by means of laboratory and field tests. The developed SCT device already exists in a beta version, and is being applied to projects internationally. For more details, please contact: Read also: